Massive Landslide Coats Glacier Bay National Park's Johns Hopkins Glacier Like Chocolate Frosting

A massive landslide that peeled off the flanks of Lituya Mountain in Glacier Bay National Park ran more than 5 miles atop the Johns Hopkins Glacier deep within the Fairweather Mountain Range of Glacier Bay National Park. Photos by Drake Olson, chart via Dr. Marten Geertsema.

A massive landslide, one of the biggest ever seen in North America and which registered on seismographs in Canada and the United States, has covered a more than 5-mile run of the Johns Hopkins Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve like chocolate frosting on cake.

Coursing down an unnamed valley that descends beneath 11,750-foot Lituya Mountain in Alaska's Fairweather Mountains, the muddy flow sloshed back and forth through the twists and turns of the valley, rattling and shaking the surrounding ridges and mountain flanks, which contributed their own snowy avalanches along the route.

While the exact volume of the slide has not been calculated, when it broke off the upper reaches of Lituya Mountain it registered as a relatively small, but noticeable, earthquake. But it wasn't the result of an earthquake.

“This thing is huge. It’s 9 kilometers long, so 5.5 miles long," Dr. Marten Geertsema, a research geomorphologist for the provincial Forest Service in British Columbia, said Tuesday from his Prince George office. "On the Canadian side it triggered a 3.7-magnitude earthquake. The (U.S. Geological Survey) recorded it at 3.4. That’s quite large for a seismic signal (from a landslide).

"... If someone was trekking up this glacier when it happened, they would have been toast."

The landslide occurred shortly before 2:30 p.m. local time on June 11. Its immensity wasn't fully comprehended until Drake Olson, an air taxi pilot, few over it July 2 and returned home with some incredible photographs.

"It spilled on top of the glacier and then it just rolled along the glacier," Lewis Sharman, a Park Service ecologist at Glacier Bay, said Tuesday. "The travel angle was calculated at about 13.7 degrees, which is not very steep, yet this stuff rolled down the glacier more than five miles.”

The slide is not readily visible from the ground or from boats on Glacier Bay, as it's estimated to be 12-15 miles "up glacier" from the bay and deep within the Fairweather Range. Since the glacier moves at a pace of 10-15 feet per day, park officials add, it could be years before this debris reaches the snout of the glacier.

So far a cause for the slide hasn't been determined. Whatever the cause, a massive slice of rock and ice peeled off Lituya Mountain.

“I haven’t had a good look at the mountain, but it’s a combination of ice and rock," said Dr. Geertsema. "And a big piece of that mountain broke off. But there was a large chunk of glacier sitting up there as well. That’s fairly common in that type of area."

The geomorphologist said the slide might have been caused by a breakdown in the permafrost on the mountain. "With permafrost degradation there’s a whole complex suite of fractures that develop. Some of them dialate, so they open and close, but some of them are permanent," he said. "And over time it progressively weakens, the rock mass. It could have been just ready to go. It’s hard to know what the factors are.”

Dr. Geertsema said he's aware of a similar, but much larger, slide that occurred in Russia and which ran about 20 miles.

"But this is the biggest one I’ve seen in North America," he added. "There might have been ones that are larger, I just don’t know about them.”

Is the landslide evidence of global warming? Is it a rare, but naturally occurring phenomena?

“I think it’s unusual in terms of its size. But they certainly happen," said Dr. Geertsema. "Right now I’m plotting all of these things. I’ve been doing some work in Switzerland and also here, looking at mountain permafrost degradation. That may or may not play a role in these things."

Another fascinating aspect of the slide is that it pushed a powerful "air blast" down the valley in front of it. In places the blast is thought to have tossed rocks and other debris as much as 1,600 feet above the slide's surface. Though the speed of the air blast hasn't been calculated, the Canadian geomorphologist said some have been clocked as fast as 200 mph.

“There was this big dust cloud, this air blast that traveled above the flowing rock mass. According to the pilot who sent me the picures, Drake Olson, there’s a lot of fist-sized stones that were ejected above the dust cloud as well," said Dr. Geertsema.

Back at Glacier Bay, ecologist Sharman said geomorphologists anticipate such landslides "becoming a little more frequent as we have warmer than usual temperatures, we have more melting events, and glaciers and surface sediments become better lubricated on surface terrain at elevation."

“Geomorphologists are not surprised that they’re starting to see more of these events. In any case, they’re rare of this size,” he said.

Traveler footnote: This landslide shares a name, but nothing else, with a 1958 event on the park's western coast. "On July 9, 1958, a magnitude M 7.9 earthquake on the Fairweather Fault triggered a rock avalanche at the head of Lituya Bay," according to USGS reports. "The landslide generated a wave that ran up 524 m on the opposite shore and sent a 30-m high wave through Lituya Bay sinking two of three fishing boats and killing two persons."

Comments

This is a very beautiful set of images and a really helpful article. In fact this was detected remotely by Colin Stark at the Columbia University on the day that it occurred, and Keith Delaney at the University of Waterloo identified the location from a satellite image a few days later. Details on my blog:

http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2012/06/14/another-very-large-landslide-this-time-on-the-canada-alaska-border-can-you-help/

Talk about bad news. Any ski resort owner realizes how anything dark (dirt from pedestrians' shoes, whatever) draws in sunlight and melts snow. This is a glacier now coated to suck up solar energy—a new wrinkle in the reasons why climate change may itself unexpectedly accelerate the demise of glacial ice. I'm surprised none of the experts offered hypotheses about that for the story...

I can't read half of the article because of the dark green strip.

Randy, you are right about the impact of dark debris but only IF IT IS THIN. Over a 'critical depth' (few cm to 10's of cm) debris cover insulates the ice and no solar radiation gets through ie melt is shut off and the glacier advances. And of course......depends where on the glacier it is - if in the upper zones it'll be snowed on......

To anonymous at 12:39 a.m, and any others with a similar problem...

The green stripe could be related to a couple of issues:

1) If you're using Internet Explorer 8, it could be a compatibility problem that can usually be resolved by clicking on "compatibility view" under the icon "view pages."

2) What resolution is your screen set at? Some folks run into the problem you describe if their resolution is just 1024 pixels wide, while things look fine at 1280 pixels wide. Also, are you looking at the page through a window on your browser, or at "full screen"? If you're viewing it through a window, try moving to full screen. That should solve things.

Finally, if the above solutions don't work, you can adjust the view by using the Zoom In and Zoom Out buttons on your browser.

All that said, the problems don't seem to occur with either FireFox or Chrome.

Today is June 12th, 2012. At the intersection of Dowling and New Seward Highway, there remains a large pile of cleared snow from the 2011-2012 record snowfall. This pile of snow is covered in the black gravel that is used for traction on icey roads. My point is, the rock is blocking the sunlight from melting the snow. It does not appear to increase the melt rate what-so-ever. Food for thought...

Actually, if the debris cover is thick enough (typically a few centimeters based on past measurements) and continous it tends to reduce the melt from the glacier. Basically, the solar energy heats up the rock near the surface during the day and then the rock cools again at night. If the dirt and rock layer are deep enough, this cycle happens without any heat actually making it to the ice below, keeping the ice cool and frozen throughout the day. This insulating effect is strong enough to counter the lower albedo of the dark debris compared to the bright ice. It's like throwing a blanket over the ice to keep it cool on a hot day.

Think of it similar to digging a hole in the dirt on a hot day: the dirt you dig out from underground will be cooler than the dirt on the surface (until it heats up after being dug out, of course).

In the case you describe (dirt from a footprint) the dirt is not continuous and very thin. It's not thick enough to provide any insulation, but the lower albedo of the dirt means more solar energy is absorbed and the warmer dirt melts the snow faster.

Looks amazingly similar to what happened to the North face of Peru's Huascaran Norte in 1970. That slide had an incredibly long run before it arrived to and buried, in seconds, the village of Yungay.

Very fascinating! Especially the comments about how the dirt the will or will not make the glacier melt faster. I learned something this morning!

Last week we hiked to Angel glacier at Mount Edith Cavell in Jasper NP. The part of the glacier at the bottom by the lake has alternating white(ice) and dark bands that are very pronounced and distinct. At least 10-20 layers. Everyone was debating the meaning-- some saying it might be from volcanic ash?? Maybe recurrent landslide episodes would explain it??

My wife and I were exiting Lituya Bay via our boat around 3 hours before the event. We were in Cross Sound when the event occurred, but the sea was so rough that we could not have noticed anything like a boom, etc. Too bad! I wonder what effects might have shown up at the head of the Bay that is around 8 NM away.

I live by that snow dump, and the original poster is 100% correct!!

If the event happened on the 11th of June and the pilot photographed the slide in early July how could he know about the rocks in the air during the air blast? That part didn't make sense to me.

Risa, apparently he could see the rocks that had been tossed up higher lying on the snow above the slide.

A common source of the dark material in glacial ice is windblown dust from adjacent snowfree slopes each summer. Many valley glaciers have alternating annual light and dark bands when exposed in cross-section by crevasses. The less common surface bands Dick G describes are called ogives: http://www4.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/lemke/alpine_glacial_glossary/landforms/ogives.html

Definitely not the biggest recorded landslide in North America.

Strictly speaking landslides on glaciers, check the Eastern Alaska Range (Jibson et al., 2004) and landslides triggered by the Good Friday earthquake (Post, 1967).

Even without a " biggest" modifier, still very impressive.